The major scale pattern we normally see:
I rely upon the following scale degrees and the major scale box. Understand I also play bass guitar and with the bass we are playing chord tones one note at a time, we do not strum. Visualizing the scale degree numbers instead of dots in a pattern have opened a few doors for me. Offered for what it's worth.
Major Scale Box Pattern - with scale degree numbers.
E|---7---|--R(8)-|-------|---2---| 1st string
E|-------|---R---|-------|---2---| 6th string
Place the R on your fretboard and play the pattern. C major scale place the R on
the Big E string 8th fret and the notes of the C major scale await you.
If you want the notes in the C major chord place the R and then play the R-3-5 scale
degrees. Those are the notes in the C major chord. Want the Cm chord, flat the 3.
That sus2 and 4 are R-2-5 or R-4-5. You asked; "I wonder how a maj7 and min7
would look like? Keep reading, maj7 gets a root, a 5 plus a 3 and 7.
The min7 gets a root, a 5 with a b3 and a b7. It's pretty straight forward once
you understand how it all fits together.
Major Triad = R-3-5
Minor Triad = R-b3-5
Diminished Chord = R-b3-b5
7th Chords - or arpeggio patterns.
Maj7 = R-3-5-7
Minor 7 = R-b3-5-b7
Dominant 7 = R-3-5-b7
½ diminished = R-b3-b5-b7
Full diminished = R-b3-b5-bb7
Major Scale = R-2-3-4-5-6-7
Major Pentatonic = R-2-3-5-6 leave out the 4 & 7
Natural Minor Scale = R-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 Major scale with a flat 3, 6 & 7
Minor Pentatonic = R-b3-4-5-b7 Natural minor scale with out the 2 & 6
Blues = R-b3-4-b5-5-b7 Minor pentatonic with the blue note (b5) added
Harmonic Minor Scale = R-2-b3-4-5-b6-7 Natural minor scale with a natural 7
Melodic Minor Scale = R-2-b3-4-5-6-7 Major scale with a b3.
Ionian same as the Major Scale.
Lydian use the major scale and sharp the 4 - yes, it’s that simple.
Mixolydian use the major scale and flat the 7.
Aeolian same as the Natural Minor scale.
Dorian use the Natural Minor scale and sharp the b6 back to a natural 6.
Phrygian use the Natural Minor scale and flat the 2.
Locrian use the Natural Minor scale and flat the 2 and the 5.
Now that may be a paradigm shift from the way you were taught modes. That's parallel modes, do a Google. Check out this video. http://scottsbasslessons.com/welcome-to-the-shed you may have to click the blank screen several times for the video to load. Worth your time. The glove, skin condition don't let it throw you.
Looks like a lot to memorize, not really. Everything has a root and a 5, true the diminished gets a b5. Major gets a 3, minor gets a b3. A maj7 gets a 7, dominant seven and minor sevens plus the m7b5 will use a b7. The 6 is neutral and adds color, the 2 and 4 are best left as passing notes. Want the natural minor scale, flat the 3, 6 & 7 of the major scale. Want a major pentatonic, visualize the major scale and leave out the 4 & 7.
It helped me, look it over perhaps you will like it also. This may help. http://www.smithfowler.org/music/Chord_Formulas.htm