I think you meant - notes.
Originally Posted by V2012
You are correct, but just to clear things up.
This is Pachibel's Canon in C:
I would suggest memorizing the qualities of all seven chords on each scale degree in the three most popular scales: Major, Natural and Harmonic Minor. Actually, just two because HM is a bit more in-depth - especially when you tack on the seventh scale degrees (and there are two kinds).
On the issue of Form, that is a separate issue from analysis as form deals with how a song is structured. Classical Music calls them "movements" whereas comemporary music uses the terms Intro/Verse/Chorus/Bridge/Middle Eight/Outro. They're just noting sections of a song. Totally separate from analysis.
However, a certain section can be analyzed:
The verse (first movement) goes using "O Xmas Tree"
C7-F-Gm7-FMaj7-F#(Gb)dim7-Gm7-C7-Bbdim7/F-F, then it repeats.
The bridge or "Second Movement" goes as thus:
I used embellishment, but analysis is still optional as you only really need to look at the root and third of the chords)
So, the verse is:
The bridge is:
(V)-I ... IV ... V ... iv-I (V turns you around to the verse)
The more you study songs outside of assignments (ie: listening by radio, CD, MP3, internet, live play, tv film, etc.), the analysis part will be very easy to grasp.
However, analysis does teach you this concept: "Functional Harmony." How chords and the tones within them relate to other chords.
Something else you may be asked to know about are the names for each scale degree and they are as follows:
To explain the different sizes. Uppercase Numerals mean Major; Lowercase numerals mean Minor. Uppercase numerals with "+" mean Augmented (Greater than Major). Lowercase numerals with a degree sign mean diminished. The symbol for the internet can be a lowercase "O," a zero (0) or what I have chosen, an asterik. (viio, vii0, vii*)
I = Tonic
ii = Supertonic
iii = Mediant
IV = Subdominant
V = Dominant
vi = Submediant
vii* = subtonic/leading tone
The reason the seventh degree has two names is because there are two types: the natural 7 (1-2-3-4-5-6-7) and the flatted 7 (b7).
Perhaps you know the song Do-Re-Mi from "The Sound of Music." In this tune, Maria sings the Major scale. Every time "Ti" (VII) is sung, the line that accompanies it: "And that will bring us back to Do" (I) "And Ti will lead us back to Do." VII-I.
The reason she says this - a couple actually:
When it's just a scale, it seems incomplete when you stop on note seven because it's the most tense. This is displayed in the movie when she stops at the seventh note, before the song starts. We feel like she leaves us hanging until she starts singing starting at the tonic - I. Likewise, when we write out the scale or play it on an instrument (singing included), more often than not, we double the tonic (C-D-E-F-G-A-B-? C.)
Here's the clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgawkL3zhfE&feature=plcp (Stop it at 0:03)
Of course, this song is about melody, but if you listen to the harmony behind it ...
I'll do it though:
It's in B, but I'll analyze it in Bb:
This is getting into "Functional Harmony" (Analysis), but here's how it ties in with the scale degrees:
Bb (8 bars) F7 (8 bars) Bb7 (8 bars) EbMaj7 (4 bars) Eb6 (4 bars)
Bb9sus (1 bar) EbMaj7 (I bars) C7 (1 bars) F7 (1 bar) D7 (1 bar) Gm7 (1 bars) Bb7 (I bar)
Cm9 / F7 (1 bar) Bb
I-V-I-IV / I (ii-V)-IV-ii-V / III (V/vi)-vi / I-IV-V-I
All chords (harmony) and numbers (scale degrees, melody) correspond to the key.
Bb F7 Bb7 Eb
123, 13, 13 / 2, 344324 / 345, 3535 / 4, 566546 /
Bb7sus Eb C7 F7 D7 Gm7
5, 612345 / 6 / 6, 124567 / 7 / 7, 13456 /
Bb7 Eb F7 Bb F7
17(b)7 64, 75, 1 / 5 / 3 / 2
Listen to the entire song to hear how Maria (and children) fuses her singing (melody) with the harmony.
Another thing to be aware of:
Now, there is something called tonicization, but this is different from modulation. Some call it temporary modulation, because the key change (or the illusion of such doesn't last long)
Have you heard of or know of the ii-V-I progression? This is very common in jazz; however, there for awhile was this miscoception that only that genre has it. True, it sees a very hefty emphasis, but that isn't the only genre that has it. In fact, a very good majority of Western music uses this progression. However Jazz standards are used most often to demonstrate it.
Autumn Leaves in a minor key:
F minor in this example:
This is nothing but ii-V-I
If we were isolate and group into threes:
Fm-Bbm7-Eb7 = ii-V-I in Eb
Eb7-AbMaj7-DbMaj7 = ii-V-I in Db
Gm7b5-C7-Fm7 = ii-V-I in F Minor
When heard, every I chord hit makes you think it is a new key, but it's not - it circles around leaving the i chord, but goes goes back to it. this is done by "Falling Fifths/Rising Fourths" (ie: The Circle of Fifths/Fourths)
However, if we were to analyze this section as a whole (in relation to the key):
i-iv-VII-III-VI-ii-V-i - Notice here instead of three groups, there is only one group.
Here's the slow ballad version: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kP8jPa1wCg
Here's the recorded instrumental with the "Falling Leaves" runs:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tDQMqlHZt8 (A little bit faster)
The jazz standard as performed by The Bill Evans Trio: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jiew8O8BLlY (lots of improvising and soloing)
Now, with three concrete examples and explanations, I hope this helps. It may be a little further than you're being asked to go right now, but at least you'll already know when you get to that point. From what I gather, you only need to focus on the first two examples: "O Xmas Tree" and "Do-Re-Mi." The "Autumn Leaves" example will come later.
Does this answer your question? Glad I could help.